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Black History, Culture, and Literature: Curricula, Resources, and Articles

[These appear to be ERIC documents]

Black History, Culture, and Literature: Curricula, Resources, and Articles in Honor of African Americans

Fall 1993

Author: Ferguson,-F.-Michael
Title: Parents and Teachers as Collaborators in Building
Positive Self Concepts in Young Children.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 113 p.; Ed.D. Practicum, Nova University.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This practicum was designed to help children in an early childhood community center understand themselves and others as being unique, and having worth and dignity. It was intended that parents and teachers would develop a partnership and work in a collaborative manner on behalf of the children. Surveys of participating parents and teachers indicated that the lack of cooperation between parents and children resulted from parents' lack of training in effective parenting skills and teachers' lack of the skills they needed to work effectively with young children. To remedy this situation, a consultant implemented and evaluated 24 in-service training sessions and 8 counseling sessions with 29 parents and 10 teachers in child development, effective parenting skills, early childhood education, and multicultural education. The sessions provided parents with effective strategies for recognizing developmentally appropriate behaviors in their children, provided teachers with training in multicultural education, and built collaboration between teachers and parents. It is concluded that all goals of the practicum were met. Appendices provide related materials, including an African and African American diagnostic inventory; a family contact rating scale; a children's self-concept scale; parent and teacher survey questionnaires; and a classroom inventory checklist.

Author: Kline,-Lucinda
Title: African-American Children's Literature.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 27 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the history of African American children's literature, the present-day status of it, and ventures predictions about its future. The paper also considers the historic and social factors of the debate about whether an author who is not African American can write a book that will/should be accepted in this category of children's literature. The first section of the paper deals with the history of this body of literature and designates the 1890s as the first decade in which books written for children of color were published and includes a survey of representative titles. The next section describes the present-day status of such work and includes discussion of specific picture books, folktales, and historical novels. The last section of the paper predicts the future of literature written for children of color, notes that the demand for this kind of literature has steadily increased over the last 3 decades, and suggests that the current commitment to multi-cultural education will only continue to increase that demand. The paper concludes that the changing demographics of today's society not only leave children of color at a disadvantage if diversities are not explored, studied, and accepted, but also predicts real difficulty for white children who will have to cope with the first American minority-majority. Thirty-two footnotes are attached.

Author: McCabe,-Allyssa
Title: All Kinds of Good Stories.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 63 p.; Based on a paper presented at the Annual
Meeting of the National Reading Conference (42nd, San
Antonio, TX, December 2-5, 1992).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Drawing attention to different models of storytelling, this paper summarizes information about specific aspects of children's oral narrative structure in several cultures and explores some implications these aspects have for multicultural education programs that include stories. The paper first describes a methodology for trying to understand narratives from different cultures, which might be termed a "derived etic procedure." The paper then discusses some cultural differences in storytelling, noting that: (1) European-American children often tell personal narratives that resemble fairy tales in general form; (2) Japanese children living in America tend to tell stories that are cohesive collections of several experiences they have had (usually three); (3) African-American children often begin and end with a theme, improvising upon events in between those two points; and (4) Latino children foreground their family connections to events, places, and even times. The paper also discusses two areas of classroom life affected by cultural differences in story-telling style: social interaction and curriculum. The paper concludes that narratives from all children tend to involve self-presentation around events that have happened to them in the past. A list of 109 references and a translation and transcription of a discussion between a Salvadoran child and an adult are attached.

Author: Lee,-Courtland-C.
Title: Empowering Young Black Males.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 107 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this book is to provide school counselors and related mental health professionals with important information to help them address the crisis of the Black male. The focus of the book is on Black male educational empowerment and how pupil personnel professionals can promote it in the school setting. The book examines important issues in the development of young Black males that must be understood to effectively facilitate their educational and social empowerment. In addition, it provides direction for implementing intervention programs that promote Black male empowerment in elementary and secondary schools. The book also suggests ways to actively involve teachers and the inherent strengths of Black communities in this important process. Chapter 1 offers an overview and interpretation of current statistical data on Black male educational progress from grades K-12. Chapter 2 examines the early psychosocial development of Black males. Chapter 3 discusses Black culture and its role in the development of the Black male. Chapter 4 is comprised of four Empowerment Training Modules that provide specific instructions on implementing a variety of approaches. Module 1 describes "The Young Lions," an empowerment program for Black males in grades 3-6. Module 2 describes "Black Manhood Training," a counseling program designed to promote the transition from boyhood to manhood of adolescent Black males. Module 3 is concerned with tapping respected elders in the community as male role models for Black youth. Module 4 addresses problems for Black male students that exist in the educational system and describe counselors' roles in educational advocacy. The four modules include listings of resources. Chapter 5 is a call to action for school counselors and related professionals that presents a comprehensive plan for the empowerment of young Black males. This book is designed as an action manual for school counseling professionals. The appendixes provide four poems and three classroom activities.

Author: Ogbu,-John-U.; Wilson,-John, Jr.
Title: Mentoring Minority Youth: A Framework.
Publication Year: [1990]
Notes: 68 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the mentoring of African American youth, critiques the accepted theoretical basis for most programs, and offers an alternative framework. Following an introduction in section 1, section 2 describes conventional mentoring and contains two case studies of programs in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). A key finding of the case studies is that in many cases, the proteges did not feel a need for mentoring, and so entered the relationship with very different goals from those of the mentors. Section 3 discusses the theoretical assumptions behind planned mentoring that African American youth, especially males, are members of the "underclass" that emerged in the 1970s. This section argues that this is not a phenomenon that emerged so recently but rather a problem faced by African Americans as a minority group. Section 4 presents the paper's thesis that the absence of role models of mainstream success in the inner-city is due to adaptation to involuntary minority status, which produces traditional success models different from those of the mainstream and makes the adoption of mainstream role models problematic. Section 5 focuses on role models and folk-heroes of African American history and culture growing out of the adaptation to involuntary minority status. A total of 110 references is included.

Author: Kailin,-Clarence-S.
Title: Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook
Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 151 p.; Photographs may not reproduce clearly. For
the first and second editions of this document, see ED 170
236 and ED 200 506.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the Depression, and the protest era of the 1960s to the opening of the 1990s decade. A bibliography of nearly 750 resources divides relevant works into such topics as general history, the Post-Reconstruction era, and works focused on legal and cultural subjects. Included in the book are notes about the author, a foreword, and the prefaces to the first, second, and third editions. Black and white photographs portraying leading figures and events in African American history also are included.

Author: Cooper,-Renatta-M.
Title: The Impact of Child Care on the Socialization of
African American Children. Pacific Oaks Occasional
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the National Black Child
Development Institute Conference (St. Louis, MO, October
23-25, 1991) and at the Annual Meeting of the National
Association for the Education of Young Children (New
Orleans, LA, November 12-15, 1992).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses some of the factors that impede or assist in the socialization process of African-American children in day care centers and in elementary schools. It is maintained that most child care and school environments support the hegemonic dominance of European-American culture and values, while discouraging the culture and values of African-American children. The majority of the paper addresses the biculturation process and key cultural components that should be part of any program striving to serve African-American children. The "Seven Black Family Dynamics," developed by Wade Nobles, are utilized to provide a structure for analyzing cultural components that may be taken for granted when children are socialized in a traditional family context, but which must be identified, represented, and respected by those providing child care and education to African-American children. These dynamics include an Elastic Family, Multiple Parenting, Strong Kinship Bonds, Role Flexibility, Work Orientation, Child Centeredness, and a Strong Religious Orientation. These seven dynamics need to be encouraged and made a part of every African-American child's socialization process.

Author: Minor,-Dorothy, Comp.
Title: The African-American Experience in the United
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 142 p.; For related documents, see IR 054 359-360.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This annotated bibliography describes braille and recorded books presenting African-American personalities and concerns in fiction and nonfiction. Approximately 480 items are indexed. The bibliography is divided between recorded and braille titles and by fiction and nonfiction. There are separate sections for juvenile titles reflecting these divisions. Books for junior and senior high readers were placed in the juvenile sections; books for high school and adult readers were placed in the adult sections. Some of the books are part of the Cassette Book Florida Collection, which are recorded by volunteers. A title index is provided.

Author: Hudson,-Herman-C., Ed.
Title: Spike Lee and Commentaries on His Work.
Occasional Papers Series 2, No. 1.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 92 p.; A Martha C. Kraft Professorship Publication.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This monograph presents a critical essay and a comprehensive 454-item bibliography on the contemporary African-American filmmaker, Spike Lee. The essay, entitled "African-American Folklore and Cultural History in the Films of Spike Lee" (Gloria J. Gibson-Hudson), analyzes Lee's filmmaking approach from a cultural and historical perspective. The essay identifies Lee as a contemporary storyteller weaving his tales with the aid of a camera and demonstrates how his film narratives draw on both the historic and contemporary experiences of African Americans. The essay discusses five of Lee's films (made between 1984 and 1991) thematically, categorizing them under intra-racial issues and inter-racial issues. The bibliography (by Grace Jackson-Brown) provides citations from both scholarly and popular literature, encompassing newspaper articles, journal and magazine articles, chapters or sections from books, and reviews of films (most of the citations date from the last 5 years). The extensive 49-page bibliography is intended to be a comprehensive guide to literature that will assist students and researchers with an interest in Spike Lee. It is divided into six broad subject areas: Biography, Interviews, Production and Direction, Books and Book Reviews, Film Criticism and Film Reviews, and Entrepreneurship and Conduct of Life.

Author: Anderson,-Edward
Title: Positive Use of Rap Music in the Classroom.
Publication Year: [1993]
Notes: 18 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: As an extension of African-Americans' rich language and musical heritage and abilities, rap music has some value in the educational setting. Rap music started as a dance fad beginning in the mid-1970s among Blacks and Hispanics in New York's outer boroughs. It is another generational brand of Black language and musical usage and an extension of Black verbal and rhetorical strategies. Rap offers a series of precepts to live by and a way to understand and deconstruct the language which oppresses its listeners. Since rap songs or lyrics are intended to be spoken and not sung, they have great value as a unique form of poetry. Educators have commented on the finer points of rapping and rap music and see its value in the classroom because of its outstanding stylistic makeup. Because of its focus on presenting a message, rap has become a forceful mechanism that can be useful in the instruction of America's youth. Some of the ways rap can be used in the classroom include: (1) select, play, listen to and view, and discuss the contents or messages of rap music with a positive message; (2) have students write and present raps about aspects of particular classroom lessons; (3) create rap lecture notes on history and science; and (4) see how raps are used effectively in television or radio commercials. Teachers should use rap music occasionally to motivate and instruct, not as an everyday teaching tool. (Twenty-seven references are attached.)

Author: Johnson,-Jennifer, Ed.
Title: Milton M. Holland: Panola County Recipient of the
Medal of Honor.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 81 p.; Published by Loblolly, Inc., Gary, TX.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This publication features an article about Milton M. Holland, a black American from East Texas, who is credited with being the first black Texan to have won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the U.S. Civil War. The articles in the issue concern Milton Holland and other black Americans who served in the Civil War. The articles include: "Milton M. Holland" (Archie P. McDonald); "Interview with Dorothy Franks" (Loblolly staff); "The Afro American Texans" (Institute of Texan Cultures); "The Badge of Gallantry" (Joseph P. Mitchell); "The Congressional Medal of Honor" (Ohio Historical Research Society); "Individual Decorations of the Civil War and Earlier" (John Wike); "The Heights of Glory" (Robert A. Webb); "From Slavery to Freedom" (Frank R. Levstik); and "Politician and Educator" (Frank R. Levstik).

Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American
Experience. Curriculum Guide: Secondary School Course
of Study.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 127 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. 
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ABSTRACT: This secondary school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theatre, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. The appendix includes a glossary of terms.

Title: From Victory to Freedom: The African American
Experience. Curriculum Guide: Elementary and Middle
School Course of Study.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 135 p.; A project of the Ohio Historical Society. 
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ABSTRACT: This elementary and middle school curriculum guide contains three sections of instructional materials about three areas of African American life. The section "Community Life" includes detailed lessons on family, the church, education, business, and organizations. The section "Public Life" provides in-depth lessons on media, science and medicine, armed forces, the judiciary, civil rights, and sports. The section "The Arts" presents lessons on visual arts, music, literature, theater, and film. Each lesson has stated objectives, list of key terms, an overview, activities, and a bibliography. Appendices include: (1) Calendar of African American Events; (2) Events to Remember; (3) Additional Sources of Information; (4) Matrix of Cross-Curricular Activities; (5) Letters to Parents; (6) Visiting the Museum; (7) Museum Activities; (8) Labels from the Exhibition; (9) Teacher Bibliography; (10) Student Bibliography; (11) Audio-Visual Bibliography; and (12) Glossary of Terms.

Author: Secundy,-Marian-Gray, Ed.; Nixon,-Lois-LaCivita,
Title: Trials, Tribulations, and Celebrations:
African-American Perspectives on Health, Illness, Aging,
and Loss.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 336 p.
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ABSTRACT: This book is an anthology of short stories, narratives, and poems exploring aspects of the life cycle (birth, illness, aging, loss and grief) from an African-American perspective. The book is intended to give health care providers and interested others insights into the African-American experience, and to encourage readers to explore the implications of living in and providing services for a multicultural community. The book includes fictional and autobiographical literature from a number of noted U.S. writers, including Alice Walker, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, James Weldon Johnson, Sterling Brown, Toni Cade Bambara, Paule Marshall, and Maya Angelou.

Author: Dunston,-Aingred-Ghislayne
Title: Post World War II Civil Rights Movement: The
Struggle for Democracy and Beyond.
Publication Year: 1989
Notes: 20 p.; Paper presented at the Conference on
Development of Democracy after World War II in Germany
and the United States (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany,
September 24-30, 1989).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Two main ideas are put forth in this paper: a description of the struggle of African-Americans to become full participants in the democratic process both before and after World War II; and an argument posited that through these struggles African Americans exposed the imperfections and weaknesses of the democratic society and provided for themselves a blueprint of how to resist oppression successfully. The roots of the Civil Rights movement of the 20th century can be found in the historical experience of African-Americans in which they were systematically excluded from the democratic process. Highlights of the Civil Rights movement included specific incidents, marches and protests, the formation of organizations, legal efforts, and other tools utilized to promote social and political change. African-Americans had little choice but to resort to mass concerted pressure and to take their efforts outside the existing democratic structure, because the American ideals of equality and liberty did not, in reality, yet apply to them. The paper concludes by arguing that the struggle of African-Americans for civil rights provided a blueprint for successful resistance used by other disadvantaged groups in the 1960s and 1970s. A 28-item bibliography is included.

Author: Eyo,-Bassey-A.
Title: Intercultural Communication Education: An
Afrocentric Perspective.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 21 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Central States Communication Association (Chicago, IL,
April 11-14, 1991).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the implications of "Afrocentricity" for intercultural communication education. The paper's task is fourfold. First, it provides the meaning of Afrocentricity as an interpretive and corrective episteme; next, it examines Afrocentricity as context for civility in intercultural communication education; third, it provides a brief review of African philosophy and culture; and finally, the paper synthesizes commentaries of Molefi Asanti, Chinua Achebe, and Dona Richards which buttress the Afrocentric philosophy of respect for others, unity, complementarity, polycentered ways of knowing, rhythm, harmony and communal concern. The paper argues that Afrocentric philosophy is holistic, inclusive, and grounded in complementarity, and that it stands in contrast to Eurocentric premises of "binary opposition" and hegemony. A list of 18 references is attached.

Author: Fox,-Jill-Englebright
Title: A Selected Review of Literature on African
American Culture.
Publication Year: [1991]
Notes: 38 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: One method teachers can use in educating themselves about cultures different from their own is to read literature about the cultural backgrounds of students in their classes. This literature review is designed to provide teachers with descriptions of sources of information about cultural influences on African-American children. It also explains how an awareness of African-American culture, with its unique combination of African and Euro-American traditions, can help classroom teachers develop relationships and structure relevant learning experiences for African-American children of all ages. The review discusses the impact of cultural experiences on the learning style, behavior, social interactions, language, and values of African-American children. The following topics are also covered: (1) the dual socialization of African-Americans; (2) the role of the black family in shaping the personality of children and in helping children survive; (3) African-American children in single-parent families; (4) the role of the extended family and African-American institutional networks in providing emotional and social support; (5) the socialization of African-American males; (6) the social orientation of African-American females; and (7) the role of the African-American church in providing fellowship, adult role models, and material and human resources essential for the well-being of black families.

Title: Introducing African American Role Models into
Mathematics and Science Lesson Plans: Grades K-6.
SP: Department of Education, Washington, DC.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 313 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC13 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide presents lesson plans, with handouts, biographical sketches, and teaching guides, which show ways of integrating African American role models into mathematics and science lessons in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into mathematics and science sections, which each are subdivided into groupings: kindergarten through grade 2, grades 3 and 4, and grades 5 and 6. Many of the lessons can be adjusted for other grade levels. Each lesson has the following nine components: (1) concept statement; (2) instructional objectives; (3) male and female African American role models; (4) affective factors; (5) materials; (6) vocabulary; (7) teaching procedures; (8) follow-up activities; and (9) resources. The lesson plans are designed to supplement teacher-designed and textbook lessons, encourage teachers to integrate black history in their classrooms, assist students in developing an appreciation for the cultural heritage of others, elevate black students' self-esteem by presenting positive role models, and address affective factors that contribute to the achievement of blacks and other minority students in mathematics and science. Affective factors include developing positive attitudes in the early and middle grades, developing the ability to persist in the face of barriers, addressing stereotyping in mathematics and the sciences, understanding the utility of achievement in mathematics and science for everyday life and future careers, and maximizing the teacher's role as a positive significant other for the student. Three appendixes provide a summary of factors influencing minority student participation in mathematics and science, bibliographies of African and African American contributions to mathematics and science, and resources for incorporating African American role models in mathematics and science.

Author: Scott,-Hugh-J.
Title: Reflections on Black Consciousness and
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 14 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This essay offers reflections on Black consciousness and Afrocentrism in the United States, especially as movements in education. The paper opens by recalling the history of oppression and rejection that influences the African American heritage. Next, the essay traces some highlights in the development of ideas of race consciousness from the early part of the 20th century on. In connection with this theme, it is asserted that Black history has been continually distorted, ignored, and suppressed within the academic community and the educational establishment. The paper traces the development of Afrocentrism and explores its use in education as well as the development of African American studies. A further look at the relation between cultural groups in the United States and the role of Western ideas in the formation of the nation looks at an "Anglo-Saxon conformity model" and a melting-pot model and discusses their limitations. The final section discusses the challenges facing African American scholars and teachers who must maintain scholarly integrity. In addition, the conclusion treats the future of African American disciplines at the nation's universities suggesting that acceptance of this discipline will be resisted and will continue to make slow progress.

Author: Dana,-Nancy-Fichtman
Title: Developing an Understanding of the Multicultural
Classroom: Experiences for the Monocultural Preservice
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 14 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Association of Teacher Educators (71st, New Orleans, LA,
February 16-20, 1991).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Demographic projections indicate that the classrooms of the future will be quite different from those of the past because of the increasing language and ethnic diversity found among the American student population. As a result, there has been increasing concern about preparing monocultural teachers for multicultural classrooms. Teacher education literature provides a limited framework for designing courses to prepare teachers for a classroom student culture different from their own. One of the most valuable avenues available to the preservice teacher who attempts to enter and understand a different culture is the avenue of reading literature. Exposure to children's literature that includes an array of cultural settings can help preservice teachers develop an understanding and appreciation of the diversity of cultures both within and outside the United States. Exposure to this literature will also help them develop a repertoire of readings which they can incorporate into their teaching practices. In a preservice course at Florida State University, children's literature was used to prepare White preservice student teachers to work with African American students in Leon County, Florida. This paper discusses selection of appropriate literature and gives specific examples of children's books and their use in the college course. Two categories of books are discussed: socially conscious books, which are written by White or African American authors for White audiences to acquaint readers with the African American condition; and culturally conscious books, which are written by African American authors who portray the uniqueness of being African American from the author's own perspective.

Author: Mack,-Carl, Jr.
Title: Mistaken Identity and Issues in Multicultural
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 6 p.
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ABSTRACT: Working through a group approach with the community will help school districts reach a multicultural, multiracial consensus to ensure an excellent and equitable education for every child. There is a valid role for Afrocentric and Eurocentric concepts in a pluralist context which includes Hispanic, Native American, and Asian perspectives as well. School boards should continue to expand their efforts to meet the needs of our increasingly diverse student population in three areas: (1) development and implementation of board policy that improves the district's multicultural perspective; (2) assurance of affirmative hiring practices; and (3) review and refinement of the multicultural aspects of the district's curriculum. These actions should be driven by the single objective of improving student performance. A process referred to as the "three sets of three questions" strategy can help board members check on the soundness of any major proposal by dealing with three levels--personal, ramifications, and contingencies.

Author: Frisk,-Philip-Justin
Title: Rap Music and the First-Year Writing Curriculum.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 22 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Conference on College Composition and Communication
(43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Numerous critics have repeatedly called for the use of curricular materials drawn from the learner's everyday world, and for many of today's students, one valuable source is the lyrics of contemporary rap music. In first-year writing courses at Michigan State University, the words to one rap song, "You Must Learn" by the group Boogie Down Productions, have been used with some success. Four student responses to the text of the song demonstrate that students are capable of conceiving more or less "successful readings" of the song. One student sees the song as an attack on traditional middle-class, white-based schooling. Another student picks up on one of the song's points, the traditional curriculum's insult to a black mentality. Another student notices the complaint about the repression of black history, while the fourth student notes that the failing student in the song is labelled as rebellious. A final example illustrates a less successful response to the song in which the student inserts her own points of view rather than identifying those of the lyrics. Rather than dismiss this last student response, however, the teacher should try to discover what motivates it. David Bartholomae has conceptualized methods by which teachers can interpret such responses. Moving beyond Bartholomae's concept, the paper states that such students can be seen as "brainwashed" by dominant ideologies which repress rebellion. These students must be trained to operate in academic discourse models. In short, English teachers cannot evade the critical study of ideologies.

Author: Levine,-Richard
Title: Bringing Black History Home: Oral Sketches of the
Black Experience from Africa to Montgomery to
Publication Year: [1992]
Notes: 19 p.; Document contains light type.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the program, which begins with research at the library on black history and interviews of three generations in the students family about their opinions and their experiences as Black persons and culminates in an assembly during which students and their relatives, teachers, and other staff gather to share personal experiences and to hold a mock-civil rights march. An overview further describes the goals and incentives to students. Another section describes activities, assignments, evaluations, and projects for the first 5 days of the project. A conclusion describes the personal experiences and enthusiasm for the project of the teacher who developed it. Attached are a letter sent to parents announcing the program, sample lesson plans for three classes, and a copy of the program and script from the assembly held at Satellite East Junior High School.

Author: Jolivet,-Linda
Title: African and African American Audio Visual
Materials: A Selected List for Public Libraries.
Publication Year: 1990
Notes: 57 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this guide is to provide a selected, recommended list of video titles that were produced by or are adaptations of works by African or African American authors. The focus of this bibliography is on videos that depict the Black experience from a Black perspective, contribute to the knowledge of Africa, or tell the accurate story of the political and cultural experience of Africans and African Americans. A primary objective of this selected list is to highlight quality documentaries and dramatic titles frequently overlooked in public library video collections. Emphasis in these materials is less on technical quality and more on the quality of the stories being told, images being projected, and the contribution of the work from an Afrocentric perspective. This bibliography may serve as a reference source for patrons, librarians, or teachers in public libraries, as well as school, university, and research libraries. Intended for adult, young adult, and general audiences, the materials listed include items of interest to a wide range of individuals from junior high school to adult. There are separate sections on videotapes for children, videodiscs and computer software, and review and selection sources. Each entry includes the names of the producer, director, and distributor as well as a summary. Lists of distributors, film festivals, and the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame (1990) Competition Awards are appended, and an alphabetical index of titles is provided.

Author: Cyrus,-Stanley-A.; Legge,-June-M.
Title: Afro-Hispanic Literature: Cultural and Literary
Enrichment for the Foreign Language Classroom.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 13 p.; In: Acting on Priorities: A Commitment to
Excellence. Dimension: Languages '90. Report of Southern
Conference on Language Teaching; see FL 020 470.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Millions of people of African descent in Spanish-speaking countries are commonly omitted from the cultural, literary, and linguistic content of Spanish classes. Afro-Spanish literature can be integrated into the Spanish curriculum from the first year. This literature is not easily defined, but does reflect and aid in understanding the black experience in Latin America. It has the important traits of: (1) romanticism, modernism, and negrism combined in a syncretic core; (2) advocacy and affirmation of the experience it reflects; (3) concern for fraternity transcending ethnic groups; (4) satirical tone; (5) emphasis on nature's beauty; (6) kinesthetic emphasis, as on dance; (7) romantic sentimentalism; and (8) rhythms, patterns, and other elements of African language. A chronological approach to the study of the literature enables the student to see developments over time as they affect black Latin Americans. The novel is a good source of outstanding Afro-Hispanic work; several are suggested. Incorporation of Afro-Hispanic literature into the Spanish curriculum can help provide both a more pluralistic outlook and better cultural understanding. A brief bibliography is included.

Author: Lucas,-Alice, Ed.
Title: Twelve Years a Slave: Excerpts from the Narrative
of Solomon Northup.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 49 p.
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ABSTRACT: "Twelve Years a Slave" is a script intended to go with accompanying audio cassettes. It was developed for Voices of Liberty (a project of New Faces of Liberty) and was produced by the San Francisco Study Center as one of their "Cutting Edge Curriculum Materials." The story told by the script is excerpted from the 1989 edition (by Louisiana State University Press) of "Twelve Years a Slave", edited by Sue Eakin and Joseph Logsden, which was based on the original 1853 edition. Northup was a free black man in New York who was kidnapped to Washington D.C. and sold into slavery in 1841. The account is a valuable addition to the literature of slave narratives, written from the perspective of one who was both critic and chattel. On his eventual return to New York and freedom, an account of his 12 years as a slave in Louisiana was published. The title page and etchings are replicas of the originals. The text is largely original with the exception of portions identified as "narrator," which were written for this abridged version.

Author: Jones,-Adrienne-Lash
Title: Struggle among Saints: Black Women in the
YWCA, 1860-1920.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 18 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Organization of American Historians (Louisville, KY, April
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ABSTRACT: In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) was an extremely popular organization among black women. During this time the YWCA enjoyed a reputation as a leader in interracial affairs. Internally, however, the structure of the YWCA protected the prevailing racial status quo. Black women were served almost exclusively in separate branches, and while there were black staff members, there was no black representation on the National Board, nor on city Association boards. Black women undertook to participate effectively within the YWCA and overcame the structural and ideological barriers with which they were faced. By 1920, while its structure was flawed and racially based, the YWCA provided a forum in which black women could talk with white women, and demonstrate their readiness to address issues of class, gender, and race.

Author: Gill,-Wanda-E.
Title: The History of Maryland's Historically Black
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 57 p.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a history of four historically Black colleges in Maryland: Bowie State University, Coppin State College, Morgan State University, and the University of Maryland, Eastern Shore. The history begins with a section on the education of Blacks before 1800, a period in which there is little evidence of formal education for African Americans despite the presence of relatively large numbers of free Blacks throughout the state. A section on the education of Blacks from 1800 to 1900 describes the first formal education of Blacks, the founding of the first Black Catholic order of nuns, and the beginning of higher education in the state after the Civil War. There follow sections on each of the four historically Black institutions in Maryland covering the founding and development of each, and their responses to social changes in the 1950s and 1960s. A further chapter describes the development and manipulation of the Out of State Scholarship Fund which was established to fund Black students who wished to attend out of state institutions for courses offered at the College Park, Maryland campus and other White campuses from which they were barred. Included are a timeline of important events in higher education for Blacks in Maryland and 35 references.

Author: Bristow,-M.-B.-Smith
Title: Toward a Theory of Reading Black Feminists'
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 11 p.; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Conference on College Composition and Communication
(43rd, Cincinnati, OH, March 19-21, 1992).
EDRS Price - MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: Black feminist novelists continue to take issue with males who try to theorize about their artistic creations. Male attitudes toward black women's novels have been characterized as either apathetic, chauvinistic, or paternalistic. Black feminist writers should heed the call for collective racial progress and collective theoretical progress. The next stage will entail the establishment of a theory, perhaps a reception theory, for reading/studying black feminist writings. Males' attempts to theorize about black feminist literature often betray a disturbing paternalism. What is needed is a reception theory involving a tripartite hermeneutics consisting of understanding, explanation, and application coupled with perceptions of the sociology of language, literacy, and literature. Relationships between female characters in black women's lesbian fiction should be taken as metaphors for how the reader should receive the work. This reception theory sees the reader as symbiotic mother and symbolic mother, and can be demonstrated through a reading of the Toni Morrison novel, "Sula." The character Sula can be viewed as a great mother archetype. The reader should also bear in mind the powerful feminine mythology that creative women writers are heir to, such as African goddess paradigms. Finally, "Sula" is a novel about making meaning, a classic postmodern text endlessly reconstructing itself, a virtual carnival of repetitions.

Author: Wheelan,-Belle-S.
Title: Making Public Education Work for Black Males.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 28 p.; Paper prepared for the National Conference
on Preventing and Treating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse,
HIV Infection, and AIDS in the Black Community (2nd).
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ABSTRACT: National data show that, while more money is being spent on education and legislation has been written to guarantee equal access to the educational process, the nation is still losing black males to crime and joblessness. Teachers must have high expectations for young black males, and they must avoid the labeling and stereotyping that make these young men think they have no place in the academic world. The traditional models of education in the United States seem to be very inefficient with black male children. Afrocentric curricula designed to broaden traditional curricula may be more effective. An Afrocentric curriculum can be developed so as to legitimize and explore African American culture while teaching about European and other cultures. Several alternative approaches have been suggested to make schools more effective for young African American males. Among them is the idea of single sex elementary schools for boys. The first Virginia African American Summit of civic, religious, professional, and political leaders put together a five-point plan to focus on the needs of African American children. A further effort is the planned First Annual Black Male Development Conference. Such initiatives help empower the black parent to take responsibility for shaping the educational system. There is a 56-item list of references.

Author: Gill,-Wali
Title: Who Will Teach African American Youth?
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 19 p.; Speech delivered at the Annual Conference of
the Metropolitan Detroit Alliance of Black School
Educators (Lansing, MI, March 16, 1991).
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ABSTRACT: Disparities between Whites and African Americans exist in many areas in U.S. society. These disparities are exacerbated by social ills, including the Persian Gulf conflict. Positive change on the part of African American educators is required to combat these problems. The following four postulates for teaching African American youth are provided: (1) develop as a holistic person via African American culture; (2) be a positive role model for African American youth; (3) use effective classroom and administrative practices in order for African American youth to learn; and (4) make a commitment to two human service and two professional organizations. To go forward as a people, African Americans must look to the past and the nurturing provided for the current generation of adults, the accomplishments of African Americans must be recognized in curricula for African American students, educators must look for inspiration to people of color who have achieved, and educators and students must look to their African heritage.

Title: An African-American Bibliography: History.
Selected Sources from the Collections of the New York
State Library.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 23 p.
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ABSTRACT: This bibliography lists selected resources of the New York State Library that document and comment on the experience of African Americans in the history of the United States. In addition to primary sources and significant historical works, the bibliography contains references to bibliographies and research aids. Although the bibliography covers the African-American experience from the colonial period to the present, it emphasizes the post World War II period and the civil rights movement.

Black History, Culture, and Literature: Curricula, Resources, and Articles in Honor of African Americans

Fall 1993

Author: Van-Noate,-Judith-E., Comp.
Title: Afro-American Studies: A Research Guide. 1992
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 63 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This guide has been prepared to enable students at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte to locate material on topics in Afro-American studies or topics with Afro-American emphasis in the J. Murrey Atkins Library. Although a number of sources listed within the guide relate specifically to Afro-American studies, many others treat the black American experience in a variety of fields including business, literature, politics, and education. The guide begins by introducing the reader to the Library of Congress subject headings found in the traditional card catalog as well as the ALADDIN online catalog, and providing brief instructions for using these catalogs. This introduction is followed by reference listings for dictionaries, general encyclopedias, Afro-American encyclopedias and handbooks, and broad discipline encyclopedias. A guide for finding biographical information is then provided, followed by bibliographic citations for biographies and autobiographies, black studies, history and politics, humanities, social sciences, women's studies, and literature. Periodical indexes are also listed, including interdisciplinary indexes, business, criminal justice/law, education, medicine/nursing/health, history, literature and the arts, political science, religion/philosophy, science, and sociology indexes. Guidelines are also provided for finding information through essays in books, abstracts, newspaper indexes, InfoTrac, the Periodicals and Serials List of Atkins Library, government documents, statistical information, special collections, and microform source material.

Author: Reimer,-Kathryn-Meyer
Title: Multiethnic Literature: Holding Fast to Dreams.
Technical Report No. 551.
Publication Year: 1992
Notes: 16 p.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of children's literature written by and about people of color, little multiethnic literature is available. However, the situation has improved somewhat. In recent years there has been a greater focus in African-American literature upon folk tales, family stories, family histories, and biographies. Still, books about the Hispanic, Asian, or Native American experience mostly have tended to be written about, not by, members of those groups. An examination of stories from trade books and basal reading programs presented on the third-grade level found no non-white main characters. No other ethnic groups were represented. A similar scarcity of multicultural content was found in former U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett's suggested reading list and Jim Trelease's 1989 reading list. Readers from commercial publishers reflected greater diversity. The examination of multiethnic literature raises such questions as: who is writing the works; how ethnic groups are portrayed in illustrations; whether stereotypes are employed; whether separate cultures are grouped together under such labels as "Hispanic" or "Asian"; how broad an ethnic selection of reading material is presented to children; and how long multiethnic literature remains in publication. As multiethnic literature is made more available, demand for it will increase. (A list of 44 references is attached.)

Author: Anderson,-Edward
Title: Varieties of Relevant Approaches for Teaching
African-American Literature in the 1990s.
Publication Year: [1991]
Notes: 13 p.
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ABSTRACT: A teacher of Black American literature may be overwhelmed by the amount of material that should be covered. Black American literature has origins in African, European, American Indian, and Black American features. Students should be able to read works of Black American literature that show how other people feel. A complete course can give students the opportunity to gain a knowledge of Black culture and the roots of the Black American, instilling a sense of pride in Black students. As White students learn about the evils that their ancestors committed, they need to feel the teacher's care and respect for White students, and need to be able to discuss their feelings without fear of reprisals. Literature anthologies and thematic books should include Black American authors. Special training in Black American literature is a must for all English teachers today. Black American literature may be taught in a class that emphasizes such themes of human nature as myth, social protest, or ghetto life. It may be presented in genre classes such as Black American Fiction or Black American Drama. Black American literature may be presented in general genre classes along with non-Black American literature of the same genre. It may be presented according to historical period, major literary trend, and in introductory courses. Teachers may have the class engage in free discussions of the literature and the issues it raises. Teachers and students must refine their sensibility and open their minds to different ways of thinking. (Sixteen references are attached.)

Author: Hill,-Paul, Jr.
Title: "Forward To the Past": Africentric Rites of
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 23 p.; Paper presented at the Conference of the 21st
Century Commission on African-American Males
(Washington, DC, May 24, 1991).
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ABSTRACT: No ceremony or rite exists to usher the African American male youth into proper manhood. Such ceremonies, referred to as rites of passage, mark commonly agreed-upon standards, activities, tasks, and trials that each youth must master to achieve the community-sanctioned title "man." The clear articulation and subsequent implementation of such a process will have a measurable effect in reducing the effect of current destructive forces in American urban society to which the African American male child is exposed. The basis of these rites of passage is found in African heritage. In American society, schools do not fulfill the requirements of a true rite of passage. Development of an Africentric rite of passage should begin with an examination of the principles of education and socialization found in Africa. An example of such a process is the Simba Wachanga (Kiswahili for "young lions") program in Cleveland (Ohio). With the addition of a component for females, this program evolved into an Africentric rite of passage that was replicated successfully throughout Ohio. Rites of passage for African American youth must be Africentric and grounded in the black value system. The concept provides an opportunity to develop and nurture a much-needed generation of African American youth.

Author: Cryan-Hicks,-Kathryn-T.
Title: W. E. B. Du Bois: Crusader for Peace. With a
Message from Benjamin L. Hooks. Picture-Book
Biography Series.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 51 p.; Illustated by David H. Huckins.
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ABSTRACT: A biogaphy of W. E. B. Du Bois is presented in this book for young children. Du Bois is widely regarded as the foremost black intellectual from the United States. A great scholar, he was the first black American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Of his written work he is probably best known for his essays, "The Souls of Black Folk." Du Bois was a strong advocate of black Americans. He was a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also was very concerned with the situation of blacks from other parts of the world. He helped to initiate a movement, called Pan Africanism, to unite people of African descent and to gain independence for African colonies. Du Bois also was well known as a champion for world peace. Accompanying the text of this biography are numerous illustrations.

Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black
Youth Ages Sixteen and Older.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020
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ABSTRACT: This publication is the last of a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents. The materials offer positive images of black youth and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black youth. This guide is directed toward youth of 16 years and older. It contains brief annotations of 28 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 35 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black
Youth Ages Twelve to Fifteen.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 25 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020
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ABSTRACT: The third in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black youth, and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This third publication in the series is directed toward youth of 12 to 15 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 14 records and cassettes, and 15 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication and release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black
Children Ages Eight to Eleven.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 24 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020
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ABSTRACT: The second in a series of four resource guides containing annotated citations of books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials offer positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This guide is directed toward children of 8 to 11 years. It contains brief annotations of 63 books, 12 records and cassettes, and 10 films and videotapes that are appropriate for this age group. Most have publication or release dates after the mid-1970s. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

Title: The Spirit of Excellence: Resources for Black
Children Ages Three to Seven.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 26 p.; For other guides in this series, see PS 020
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ABSTRACT: The first of four publications in a series of resource guides containing suggested books, records, and audiovisual materials for African-American children and adolescents is presented. The materials provide positive images of black children and realistic depictions of black culture, heritage, and life experiences that are relevant to black children and youth. This first publication in the series is directed toward children of 3 to 7 years. It contains brief annotations of about 65 books, 27 records and cassettes, and 7 films and videotapes that are appropriate for young children. Most materials have publication or release dates after 1970. Retailers and distributors that carry the items cited in the publication are listed in an appended guide to resources.

Author: Roy,-Loriene, Ed.
Title: Pathfinders on Black Dance in America.
Publication Year: [1991]
Notes: 158 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This is a compilation of 18 pathfinders (i.e., a bibliographic instruction aid) on black dance in America, prepared by graduate students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin. The pathfinders were prepared to assist undergraduate students enrolled in a dance history class in locating information for oral presentations at a symposium on black dance. The collection of pathfinders is introduced by a description of the assignment by Loriene Roy, and a background note and outline of topics, both prepared by Ann Daly. The 18 pathfinders are grouped by six themes: Popular Entertainment; Classical Tradition; the Black Experience I (Reviving African Roots); the Black Experience II (Black Is Beautiful); Contemporary Masters; and the Social Vernacular. The individual pathfinders are entitled: (1) "Josephine Baker" (Kay Nilsson); (2) "Juba, William Henry Lane" (J'Nevelyn White); (3) "Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson" (Chris Mannix); (4) "Arthur Mitchell" (Michael McElwain); (5) "Dance Theatre of Harlem's Creole 'Giselle'" (Cathy Curren); (6) "The Harlem Renaissance" (Rob Kohler); (7) "Pearl Primus" (Cindy Lennartson); (8) "Katherine Dunham" (Rima O'Connor); (9) "Charles Moore" (Clay-Edward Dixon); (10) "Asadata Dafora Horton" (Katie Hays); (11) "Alvin Ailey" (Kathryn Hill); (12) "Donald McKayle" (Angela Dorau); (13) "Urban Bush Women" (Larry Gainor); (14) "Black American Concert Dance Pioneers: Edna Guy, Hemsley Winfield, Eugene Von Grona" (Melba Valdez); (15) "The Lindy Hop" (Linda Clark); (16) "The Hoofers Club" (Silvia Stewart); (17) "The Twist" (Jennifer Coggins); and (18) "Breakdancing" (Mimi McKay). A pathfinder evaluation sheet is appended.

Author: Parko,-Margie
Title: Evaluation of the Self-Esteem through Culture
Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) Program
1989-90. Report No. 15, Vol. 25.
Publication Year: 1991
Notes: 73 p.
EDRS Price - MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates a program for educators, youth workers, and parents in four Atlanta (Georgia) Public Schools designed to teach African American children the positive aspects of their cultural heritage and to increase their self-esteem and desire to learn. Although the Self-Esteem Through Culture Leads to Academic Excellence (SETCLAE) program has been implemented in four schools, this evaluation covers only the two elementary schools, Woodson and Toomer, which participated for a full year. The evaluation, using an experimental/control design with approximately 600 students, involves the use of two self-esteem instruments, an analysis of Iowa Tests of Basic Skills normal curve equivalent scores in reading and total mathematics, an analysis of the results of a teacher questionnaire, and an analysis of student absences. The evaluation indicates that the instructional program has been only partially implemented