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Ferdinand VII

    Ferdinand VII was not liberal by any means. When the Bourbons returned to the Spanish throne after Napoleon was defeated in 1814, they tried to restore things as they were before the French Revolution and Napoleon. They wanted divine right monarchy. That is being reactionary. Ferdinand had to face a revolt from soldiers in Spain who were being sent to the New World to suppress independence movements. These soldiers demanded the restoration of the Constitution of 1812, a liberal (but radical to the Spanish) constitution created when the Bourbons were in exile/captivity in France. Ferdinand had no means to supress the soldiers so he gave in and restored the 1812 constitution. He then appealed to the conservative coalition in Europe to send him help to reassert his authority. France, a monarchy again and desirous of showing that it was now conservative, sent troops into Spain to restore Ferdinand's authority. Mexican conservatives hated the 1812 constitution and many therefore supported Ituribide's call for independence because they saw Iturbide as a true conservative who was helping them escape from "liberal" Spain. Had they waited a few more years, conservatism would have been reasserted in Spain and there would have been no reason to leave. Some Mexicans would supported either the liberal (desiring a republic) or the conservative (desiring a monarchy) independence movement did so because they believed that Mexican, not Spaniards, should control Mexico.